Function and Mechanisms of APOBEC3 in Genome Integrity and Cancer Biology

Shan Yan, Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City Boulevard, Charlotte NC 28223

The genome of cells is exposed to damage regularly from endogenous resources such as oxidative stress or environmental toxins, leading to DNA lesions. Cells have evolved several stress response pathways such as DNA repair and DNA damage response pathways to maintain genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair and DDR pathways have been linked to human diseases including cancer. The APOBEC3 family of cytosine deaminases can turn cytosine bases into uracil bases, leading in C to T transitions/mutations and DNA strand breaks. Increased APOBEC3 expression and enzymatic activities in certain types of cancer cells are consistent with detected mutational signatures, suggesting APOBEC3 is involved in cancer etiology or oncogenesis. This review will examine the diversity of functional domains in seven APOBEC3 genes (A3A-A3G) and the evolution of APOBEC 3 genes in mammals and their survival advantages. Whereas APOBEC3 proteins are antiviral factors that are developed to protect humans and mammals from viruses, we will focus on how DNA lesions induced by APOBEC3 are repaired and their effects on genome stability. We intend to provide evidence and analysis of how APOBEC3 may contribute to cancer development and other diseases such as HPV, HIV, and cancer. Insights from this review can help researchers develop drugs that can restrict or modulate APOBEC proteins and/or associated cytosine deaminase activity for new avenues to cancer therapeutics.

Additional Abstract Information

Presenter: Brianna Bush

Institution: University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Type: Poster

Subject: Biology

Status: Approved

Time and Location

Session: Poster 2
Date/Time: Mon 3:00pm-4:00pm
Session Number: 2636